Here is a short guide to various linings and trimmings for garments.
Silk taffeta: a very luxurious lining for coats, etc. Has a rough feel to it.
Silk satin: used mostly for lining court dress/livery.
Rayon taffeta (ermazine): plain weave rayon with a feel of silk.
Rayon satin: smooth and shiny.
Rayon twill: has diagonal weave.
Cotton-back twill: rayon twill with a cotton backing. Heavier than normal linings and good for vintage style coats and body coats.
Cotton silesia: a fine and smooth medium weight cotton. Often used for backings as well as linings.
Striped linings: used mostly for sleeves but can also be used for trouser waistbands. Cotton, linen or rayon.
Wool/horsehair canvas: various types for different garments. Mainly used for reinforcing the body.
Linen canvas/holland: used to reinforcing pockets, flies, etc. Can be used as a ‘button-catch’ to give strength to where buttons are sewn.
Cotton tape: used to edge and mark folds in the garment.
Cotton pocketting: medium to heavy weight.